15 January 2011 - Montreal Protocol Projects in Iran
Written by Administrator
Montreal Protocol Projects in Iran
UNDP practice area:
This project is under the Energy and Environment mandate of the UNDP and it has a large capacity development element. In this way it is under the general umbrella of both Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7 and MDG8.
Project completed or ongoing:
The assembly line at one of the manufacturing companies assisted by the National CFC Phase-out Project. The UNDP has assisted by providing CFC-free technology so that Iran can meet its CFC Phase-out obligations under the Montreal Protocol.
This set of projects are set in the context of the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol). The Montreal Protocol is an international legal instrument that requires countries reduce and ultimately phase-out the levels of production and consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) according to an agreed schedule. Since its initial ratification, the Montreal Protocol has undergone a number of amendments. One of these amendments is the inclusion of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as ODS.
The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol (MLF) helps developing countries (Article 5 countries) comply with their commitments in this agreement. The Fund is managed by a Secretariat located in Montreal, Canada and supervised by an Executive Committee (ExCom).
Iran is a signatory to the Vienna Convention, the Montreal Protocol and all its amendments with the exception of the Beijing Amendment (1999). Although Iran is not a producer of CFCs and HCFCs, it is a consumer of these substances, both of which are mainly used in the refrigeration, foam production, and air conditioning sectors. Accordingly, most of Iran’s efforts under the Montreal Protocol have been to eliminate the use of these substances in the country.
The project is specifically geared to Iran’s national capacity to contribute to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol.
- Establishment of NOU and NOC – The keystone in these activities has been the establishment of the NOU. This unit was established in 1993 and now has specialist staff that provide technical assistance, public awareness and capacity building as well as administrative and legislative assistance. The National Ozone Committee (NOC) is an inter-ministerial body set up in 1994 with the assistance of the NOU. The NOC is the highest decision making body for the implementation of the Protocol in Iran. It is comprised of representatives from key Government Ministries and Departments related to ODS phase-out. The establishment of the NOC means that there is now an institutional mechanism through which national phase-out activities can be coordinated and a coherent national strategy can be developed. The NOU works to support this through serving as a focal point for all control measures conducted under the Montreal Protocol.
- Provincial Ozone Cells and Iran Ozone Network – In order to put the NOC in contact with the provinces, and also to decentralise the NOU’s activities, the Iranian Ozone Network (ION) was established. This is comprised of Provincial Ozone Groups in each province. To assist in the implementation and administration of these provincial groups, 30 Provincial Ozone Cells have been established. These Cells operate out of the provincial DoE offices and are staffed by trained Provincial Ozone Representatives. These representatives provide local assistance by identifying ODS consuming businesses and conducting regular monitoring visits. The ION is also supported by an intranet system which links the 30 Ozone Cells, bureaus of the DoE and other line organisations. These units create an extensive network that work as a vehicle for the activities to be effectively conducted right down at a provincial level. When coupled with the establishment of the NOU and NOC, this makes Iran more capable of complying with its international environmental commitments under the Protocol. They have also been critical in the establishment of the Import/Export Licensing and Quota System created to regulate and monitor the amount of ODS permitted to be imported into the country and any possible re-export of ODS.
- Physical Phase-out – The Montreal Protocol required that the consumption of CFCs be phased-out by 1 January 2010. Thanks to the effective work of the national mechanism created by IR Iran through UNDP’s assistance in the country, Iran has been able to achieve the above-mentioned target and other national commitments under the Protocol. This is particularly notable given that it was initially believed that a budget for phasing out what was believed to be only 56ODP tonnes in the refrigeration sector was allocated to the project, when in fact the amount was closer to 165.85ODP. To date, over 6900 ODP tonnes of ODP have been phased-out.
- HPMP Project – This project is yet to substantively begin pending the approval by the ExCom of Iran’s National HPMP prepared and submitted in 2010. This document provides a proposed plan for the initial stages of Iran’s HCFC phase-out and identifies the sectors to be engaged. The experience gained in the previous phase-out activities has been applied in the design and strategy of this project.
- The institutions created through the project, their nature and composition have worked well to ensure that the project’s activities can be conducted effectively. An example of this is the NOC, which brings together various government agencies to coordinate activities and develop a collective strategy. This is made more effective through the decentralised structure of the NOU with the Provincial Ozone Cells, which allow for bottom-up involvement phase-out activities. This did not exist prior to the project and has been instrumental for ensuring the success of the project.
- Holistic Approach to Planning – A lesson learnt from the NPP implementation experience was that it is critical to take a holistic approach to project planning. Many of the challenges that occurred during the implementation of this project resulted from that fact that planning was focused on the specific objectives and could have also looked at the wider practical aspects of the project.
- Stakeholder Involvement and Buy-in – The chances of achieving project objectives more efficiently are increased if stakeholders feel engaged and involved in a project. This was demonstrated by the meeting held at the end of the NPP and all the project stakeholders were invited to attend. Further, the meetings held in the planning stages of the HPMP with the project stakeholders was noted to have given these partners the understanding that they have a stake in the project’s success.
- Public Advocacy and Awareness – Information outreach activities play an important role in the adoption of ozone friendly technologies. These activities should have a national geographic coverage. As well as targeting the general public, they should be directed towards key target groups. These include: industry representatives, industry associations, enforcement agencies and academia.
- Technology Conversion Alternatives – Beneficiary businesses were given the option of either taking the conversion technology offered by the implementing agency or paying the difference between the default price and a possible, implementing agency endorsed alternative. This in part proved successful in helping ensure businesses continued to use the new technology and buy-into the project.
Donor: Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol
Implementing Agency: United Nations Development Programme
Cooperating Agencies: United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Industrial Development Programme
UNDP Project Website: http://www.undp.org.ir/index.php/component/content/article/80
NOU Official Website: www.iranozone.ir
For more information contact:
UNDP Programme Analyst
Tel: (9821) 2286 0691-4
Fax: (9821) 2286 9547
Last updated, March 2011